Teaching is a complexfggfgfggffg process which brings socially desirable behavioural change in a person. Teaching is a part of teaching-learning process. It is required to bring certain changes in a person according to the need of his society and environment in which he is living.Teaching is not an act as it is dynamic in nature so it is termed as process. It is also not a fundamental concept as it is greatly influenced by social and human factors.TeachIng is both art and science. It is an activity involving teacher and student with a view to the development of student.
Teacher is a person, who, due to his rich or unusual experience in education or both in a given field is able to contribute to the growth and development of the other person who comes in contact with him. There are four dimensions associated with a teacher, his competence, efficacy;enthusiasm and morale.
Teacher's competence : Teacher's competence has been defined as the extent to which the teacher has the relevant subject matter and the pedagogical experties needed to impart the curriculum effectively,
Teacher's efficacy: It is defined as the self belief in his capacity of doing what is expected from them.
Teacher's enthusiasm: A teacher must be very enthusiastic. Teacher's Morale : It is very important in maintaining balance in the class room interaction. The various factors contributed to the morale are psychological well being, selfesteem, commitment to a cause. Knowledge and identification with the organisational goal. The teachers morale is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental cause.
The classroom interaction between a student and a teacher is completely based on the climate created by teacher. He should be able to bringthe blendness of friendship with a definite degree of firmness. The interaction must be smooth and pleasant without any friction for a complete and fruitful teaching learning process. Normally, verbalism goes on in the name of teaching. Students are merely expected to listen to the explanation and lectures. This is known as direct teaching. The effectiveness of direct teaching has been questioned many times and it is found that this type of teaching is not very effective one. For effective teaching the active, participation of students is very important. This participation is done through the classroom interaction. This interaction consist of teacher explanations and lectures with students suggestions, ideas concepts, and questions etc. These activities of students make important for making teaching learning process effective, democratic and friendly. Interaction is required for the rectification of the drawbacks of direct teaching. This interactive teaching is known as indirect , teaching. Through the interaction, the teacher analyses the capacity and requirement of students and can bring subsequent changes in their behaviour according to the requirement and can also change way of teaching.One of the most important thing in classroom interaction is the communication.
SUBJECT MATTER : It is also known as curriculum. Curriculum is a "general overall plan of the content or specific material of instruction, that an educational institution should offer to the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification". It is also a body of prescribed educational experience under an institutional supervision, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he/she is a part; or to qualify him for a trade or profession. It is also defined as "a subject matter, instructional materials, situations or experience that may help to develop understanding, skills, appreciation and attitudes". Curriculum should be logical, psychological and according to the needs of the pupil and also the society. It should be objective in approach. Curriculum can be of two types:
(i) Teacher oriented curriculum :In this type of curriculum the process of selection of materials content is based on the needs of the instructor/teacher. The teacher is proficient in his particular field and is considered superior.
(ii) Child/student oriented curriculum: A curriculum in which the criteria for the selection and sequence of material, activities and experiences for any particular pupil are the needs, maturity, interests and experiential backgrounds ofthe individual child. In our country tne NCERT is the main institution authorised for making curriculum. Every state has his own curriculum making bodies known as SCERT.Some states follows the NCERT curriculum. All schools affliated the CBSE boards generally follow NCERT curriculum. At higher level every university make their own curriculum according to the guidelines of University Grant Commission which acts for the uniformity in curriculum at higher level in our country.
CONTEXT (SETTING) : Previously schools. were not designed to successfully teach all students. Now a days their motto have been changed. Their new motto is 'DO LEARN'. This setting is dynamic and flexible. This is changing in view of making it beneficial to society rather than for an individual. Teaching is a process carried out in different steps. There are five main steps of teaching
(i)Preparation:This stage is required or intended for the preparation of both the teacher and the students. The teacher prepare the student for a new topic or lesson in variety of ways.
(ii) Presentation : At this stage the new lesson actually begins. The students know that what they are going to learn. The subject material should be carefully arranged by the teacher. He has to encourage the students to observe, compare and contrast the facts presented to them. This stage requires mental alertness from the students. The presentation rests in the principle of selection of the area to be covered. It is not necessary for a teacher to cover up all areas of the course of study. He. may leave some areas for students self study.
(iii) Comparison : In this section after presentation of subject matter, the studentis given opportunity to compare two or more sets of facts. This enhance the understanding of lesson among students as they compare and observe different facts.
(iv) Generalisation: This stage comes after the comparison and observation. Different types of conclusions can be drawn fromcomparison and generalisation. These conclusions are systemised in a particular order to give a gener-alised truth.
(v)Application : At this stage the generalised facts are applied for various uses. This is the most important step of teaching learning process.
QUALITIES OF TEACHER (i) Teacher should be mentally and physically fit. (ii) Teacher should be keen in his work and should be enthusiastic and anxious to keep his knowledge fresh & update. (iii) He should possess patience and tolerance and try to study the difficulties and problem of students and try to solve them in a quite and calm manner. (iv) He should have feelings of love and sympathy. (v) He must not be superstitious about his students and class. (vi) He should be well dressed and-well maintained. (vii) His voice should be sweet, polite and clear. (viii) His language should be understandable to the students. (ix) He must not give any false promise. (x) He/she should have interest in his profession and the knowledge must be updated. (xi) He must not have any bad habits. (xii) Teacher must have a good communication skill and must be a master of his area or field of teaching. (xiii) Teacher should be trained in various methods of teaching. (xiv) He should know the child psychology. (xv) Teacher should be a good researcher. (xvi) He should have a control over students to maintain peace and order in class. (xvii)Teaching should be pupil central rather than subject centres. (xviii)Teacher should arose interest among students about the subject. (xix) Teacher must be fair in grading and marking. (xx)Teacher should organise extra curricular activities for better understanding of subject matter. (xxi)Good interpersonal relationship should be maintained.